2009-03-06

Palm Oil Processing Machine

Crude Palm Oil ProcessingResearch and development work in many disciplines -biochemistry, chemical and mechanical engineering - and the establishment of plantations, which provided the opportunity for large-scale fully mechanised processing, resulted in the evolution of a sequence of processing steps designed to extract, from a harvested oil palm bunch, a high yield of a product of acceptable quality for the international edible oil trade. The oil winning process, in summary, involves the reception of fresh fruit bunches from the plantations, sterilizing and threshing of the bunches to free the palm fruit, mashing the fruit and pressing out the crude palm oil. The crude oil is further treated to purify and dry it for storage and export.
Large-scale plants, featuring all stages required to produce palm oil to international standards, are generally handling from 3 to 60 tonnes of FFB/hr. The large installations have mechanical handling systems (bucket and screw conveyers, pumps and pipelines) and operate continuously, depending on the availability of FFB. Boilers, fuelled by fibre and shell, produce superheated steam, used to generate electricity through turbine generators. The lower pressure steam from the turbine is used for heating purposes throughout the factory. Most processing operations are
automatically controlled and routine sampling and analysis by process control laboratories ensure smooth, efficient operation. Although such large installations are capital intensive, extraction rates of 23 - 24 percent palm oil per bunch can be achieved from good quality Tenera.
Conversion of crude palm oil to refined oil involves removal of the products of hydrolysis and oxidation, colour and flavour. After refining, the oil may be separated (fractionated) into liquid and solid phases by thermo-mechanical means (controlled cooling, crystallization, and filtering), and the liquid fraction (olein) is used extensively as a liquid cooking oil in tropical climates, competing successfully with the more expensive groundnut, corn, and sunflower oils.
Extraction of oil from the palm kernels is generally separate from palm oil extraction, and will often be carried out in mills that process other oilseeds (such as groundnuts, rapeseed, cottonseed, shea nuts or copra).

The stages in this process comprise grinding the kernels into small particles, heating (cooking), and extracting the oil using an oilseed expeller or petroleum-derived solvent. The oil then requires clarification in a filter press or by sedimentation. Extraction is a well-established industry, with large numbers of international manufacturers able to offer equipment that can process from 10 kg to several tonnes per hour.

Alongside the development of these large-scale fully mechanised oil palm mills and their installation in plantations supplying the international edible oil refining industry, small-scale village and artisanal processing has continued in Africa and Indonesia. Ventures range in throughput from a few hundred kilograms up to 8 tonnes FFB per day and supply crude oil to the domestic market.
Efforts to mechanise and improve traditional manual procedures have been undertaken by research bodies, development agencies, and private sector engineering companies, but these activities have been piecemeal and uncoordinated. They have generally concentrated on removing the tedium and drudgery from the mashing or pounding stage (digestion), and improving the efficiency of oil extraction. Small mechanical, motorised digesters (mainly scaled-down but unheated versions of the large-scale units described above), have been developed in most oil palm cultivating African and Asian countries.
Palm oil processors of all sizes go through these unit operational stages.
They differ in the level of mechanisation of each unit operation and the interconnecting materials transfer mechanisms that make the system batch or continuous. The scale of operations differs at the level of process and product quality control that may be achieved by the method of
mechanisation adopted.

The general flow diagram is as follows:
PALM OIL PROCESSING UNIT OPERATIONS Palm Oil Machine Process
Harvesting technique and handling effects
In the early stages of fruit formation, the oil content of the fruit is very low.
As the fruit approaches maturity the formation of oil increases rapidly to about 50 percent of mesocarp weigh.
In a fresh ripe, un-bruised fruit the free fatty acid (FFA) content of the oil is below 0.3 percent.

However, in the ripe fruit the exocarp becomes soft and is more easily attacked by lipolytic enzymes, especially at the
base when the fruit becomes detached from the bunch. The enzymatic attack results in an increase in the FFA of the
oil through hydrolysis. Research has shown that if the fruit is bruised, the FFA in the damaged part of the fruit increases rapidly to 60 percent in an hour. There is therefore great variation in the composition and quality
within the bunch, depending on how much the bunch has been bruised.



Harvesting involves the cutting of the bunch from the tree and allowing it to fall to the ground by gravity. Fruits may be damaged in the process of pruning palm fronds to expose the bunch base to facilitate bunch cutting.

As the bunch (weighing about 25 kg) falls to the ground the impact bruises the fruit. During loading and unloading of bunches into and out of transport containers there are further opportunities for the fruit to be bruised.

In Africa most bunches are conveyed to the processing site in baskets carried on the head. In Indonesia some do that but now mostly by truck bring bunches. To dismount the load, the tendency is to dump contents of the basket onto the ground. This results in more bruises. Sometimes trucks and push carts, unable to set bunches down gently, convey the cargo from
the villages to the processing site. Again, tumbling the fruit bunches from the carriers is rough, resulting in bruising of the soft exocarp. In any case care should be exercised in handling the fruit to avoid excessive bruising.

One answer to the many ways in which harvesting, transportation and handling of bunches can cause fruit to be damaged is to process the fruit as early as possible after harvest, say within 48 hours. However the author believes it is better to leave the fruit to ferment for a few days before
processing. Connoisseurs of good edible palm oil know that the increased FFA only adds ‘bite’ to the oil flavour. At worst, the high FFA content oil has good laxative effects. The free fatty acid content is not a quality issue for those who consume the crude oil directly, although it is for oil
refiners, who have a problem with neutralization of high FFA content palm oil.

The main point of clarification is to separate the oil from its entrained impurities. The fluid coming out of the press is a mixture of palm oil, water, cell debris, fibrous material and ‘non-oily solids’. Because of the non-oily solids the mixture is very thick (viscous). Hot water is therefore added to the press output mixture to thin it. The dilution (addition of water) provides a barrier causing the heavy solids to fall to the bottom of the container while the lighter oil droplets flow through the watery mixture to the top when heat is applied to break the emulsion (oil suspended in water with the aid of gums and resins). Water is added in a ratio of 3:1.
The diluted mixture is passed through a screen to remove coarse fibre.

The screened mixture is boiled from one or two hours and then allowed to settle by gravity in the large tank so that the palm oil, being lighter than water, will separate and rise to the top. The clear oil is decanted into a reception tank. This clarified oil still contains traces of water and dirt.
To prevent increasing FFA through autocatalytic hydrolysis of the oil, the moisture content of the oil must be reduced to 0.15 to 0.25 percent.

Re-heating the decanted oil in a cooking pot and carefully skimming off the dried oil from any engrained dirt removes any residual moisture. Continuous clarifiers consist of three compartments to treat the crude mixture, dry decanted oil and hold finished oil in an outer shell as a heat exchanger. Palm Oil Machine Process





















In next year our team will plan to build small scale CPO (5 tonnes FFB/day) processing for remotes area of Indonesia especially Sumatra island for first priority.
We make machine processing from FFB to CPO and CPO to cooking oil and bar soap. For oil that are produced from kernel is used for medical industry.
Many farmer could not process their bunches because of CPO price is too low or already decompose on the way to the factory. With this small scale machine process, they can process by themself for their welfare.
So we prepare for all technic manufacturing and make improvement on machine so can used by unskill man(the farmer itself).




38 comments:

  1. A very good article here.. I know one site where you will find the complete information about oil mill process and seed milling process. visit http://www.oilmillmachinerysuppliers.com/

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hopefully come to borneo island (indonesia). my facebook is rito adji e-mail rito.a.n@gmail.com i do want to use your machine n want to know more about crude palm oil process. thanks a lot

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hi,
    my name is Taiye, am impress by your work, i have a question for you. please how do i solidify the fresh oil from the palm immediatelly after boiling.is there any chemical that can be used to solidify it if i dont want to process it into palm oil?.
    please help send your reply to taiyeesioh@yahoo.com



    thanks for your responds.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Dear sir,

    Our company is seeking small scale palm oil extraction, 5~10ton/day. If you have any information about those, I will appreciate your commends. my e-mail, jiplai@livemail.tw

    ReplyDelete
  5. pls, i need advise on oil palm plantation at a small scale level, maybe spanning for 2 plots of land, machinery to put in place and any other details. kindly inbox me at tundeajayi3@yahoo.com. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  6. I started developing small scale palm plantation in 2009. I intend planting more this year. My ultimate plan is to set up a small scale milling factory in the plantation by 2013. I want to know the various machines you have for small scale and medium scale palm oil milling machines and their costs to installation in Nigeria. Please send your respond to my e-mail address adamu4f@gmail.com. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Can you help me to give overall process about bunch anlysis??Hopefully you can help me..thank you. you can email to me at khairulbariah88@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  8. Good day please i need information about the various machine used for palm processing like the es tractor,nut cracker , separator etc please i want to no their various functions and prizes. Thank in anticipation
    goodseed_ng@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. hi sir i am a student of BBA and i am here to gather info regarding a palm oil plant, i mean i wanted to start d palm oil plant, i wanted to know wat technology shd b used fo cheap and the best and i hope ill get the info on the same. And any1 would like to give some advise you are pleased to.
    thank u sir....
    E-mail pavanrc747@gmail.com
    pavanrc99@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. Dear sir,

    Our company is seeking small scale palm oil extraction, 5~10ton/day. If you have any information about those, I will appreciate your commends. my e-mail, kenjimalu@yahoo.com I will also like to know the price both small and medium size machines.
    good product and good prices.

    Ken

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hello, i am seeking small scale palm oil extraction, 5~10ton/day. If you have any information about those, I will appreciate your response. my e-mail is, tolu.adebisi@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. Wonderful article.

    Anyone has any idea how different the process of converting the palm fruit into Palm nut concentrate/palm soup base different from the oil extraction?

    Where can we can purchase the technology for processing palm fruit into Palm Soup Base/Palm nut Concentrate.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I can be reached via e-mail: kunta.kinte27@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  14. hi sir we are planing to start a small scale palm oil refining operation in kenya, so any help with the process and machinery will greatly appreciated. you contact on geele05@hotmail.co.uk.. or geele45@yahoo.com..

    thanking you in advance...

    ReplyDelete
  15. planning to start a mill with 10T/D capacity in a remote area in Nigeria. consequently, I need complete quotation on that including cost of installation. I will also want to know how long it will take to ship to Nigeria. And finally, can the mill be made to run on solar energy? Please send reply to:- samuelsonjay@ymail.com

    ReplyDelete
  16. Anonymous March 22, 2012.

    Planning to start a small scale palm oil mill with 5-10 tons production capacity in remote rural Liberia Where there is no form of electricity. Please let me know the cost of setting up a mill of this capacity. And we will appreciate the cost of a generator or solar energy that may run the mill. Please sent response to: mdougba@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  17. my name is Jennifer,please i will like to get the complete small scale machine for palm kernel extraction how can you help me? I am in Nigeria. My email is yojay4real@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hi,
    I desire to set up a small scale plam oil processing plant somewhere in Ibadan nigeria. i will love to have a break down of the equipment i will need to set up, what it will cost me to produce.
    Please note i already have a palm platatiion on a 300 Plot of Land.

    i will appriciate your respons. my e-mail is seunkeyede@yahoo.co.uk.

    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
  19. I am interested in a project generating power (35 KW) using crude plam oil in Liberia. Will the CPO require any degumming or any other pre-treatment before using in duel fuel engine generator? Any information on vendors supplying such pre-treatment equipment will be greatly appreciated. My email address is KDoshi@winrock.org

    ReplyDelete
  20. You all should leave a full details about what you need inlcuding your phone numbers irrespective of your country on the email address below:-
    alviinedward@gmail.com / princealvin4real@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  21. Hi,
    I desire to set up a small scale palm oil processing plant somewhere in lagos nigeria. i will love to have a break down of the equipment i will need to set up, what it will cost me to produce.
    Please note i plan to source for my palm fruit from a nearby village.

    i will appreciate your response. my e-mail is dejiconquest@yahoo.com

    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
  22. good day,
    i'm a young entrepreneur in Nigeria and i just currently got a sponsor to finance my oil palm processing and bio fuel production.
    i just want to know how to set up a small scale oil palm processing plant first, how much the machines will cost and what machine do i need, how do i organism the working hour and running time, also get trained.
    pls i do need your urgent reply.
    best of regards...
    Henry.
    akuson.henry@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. hello sir , pls i want to enquire whether you people can fabricate machineries for xtracting palm oil,we need a medium size for a new starting company
    thanks
    here is my contact:
    tel;07060952422
    Email:abpraise@yahoo.com
    pls i need your respons ugently as we had already completed the factory building. reply me on or before 18th of January,2013 with your full contacts and company tel No,Emails e.t.c
    thanks
    Pasdtor Abraham
    C.E.O ZOE OIL LIMITED EDO STATE.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Our company 700ha of of oil palm out of which one 180ha is already producing, which we process with a labour intensive small scale machines. In the next 2 to 3 years our production will increase greatly because 520ha will be added for production. Our machines cannot handle the expected production thus we need better machines like the one you display. Can you please design and develop 3 tones per hour oilmill for our use and send the proforma invoice . We will be looking forward to your reply. You can con contact us through this e-mail kfdaniel@yahoo.com. This company is based in Nigeria .

    Regards
    K .F Daniel

    ReplyDelete
  25. Oil Expeller - Oil Mill Machinery
    The method of oil extraction has been existent from very early times. In those days, the kernels were merely cleaned and grinded with the use of grinders or pebble mills. With the advancement of science and expertise, the use of appliances like attach Presses or Oil Expellers were started for expelling or extracting oil from oil seeds and nuts.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hi sir ,
    I am from Bangladesh & my name is Pretom Ghosh. I want to know whether you people can fabricate machineries for extracting crude palm oil from palm fruits as well as fuel oil from palm fruit, we need a medium size plant for a new starting company.I want to know about the full setup of the plant,power consumption,output rate and costing for full plant setup.

    here is my contact:
    mobile: +8801743404666
    Email:pretomghoshcuet@gmail.com

    Waiting for your quick response.

    Thanks,
    Pretom Ghosh

    ReplyDelete
  27. plzz sir can you explain to me how to make palm oïl concentrate to be canned? TANX

    ReplyDelete
  28. how come you just copied materials from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website without any reference to it, do u know anything about oil palm or you just dodgy

    ReplyDelete
  29. Hello, i have a four (4) hectare oil plantation. I need an estimate of processing equipment that will be required to suit this facility. I am also interested in processing oil from palm kernel.
    The plantation is about 8 years old with very mature tress.

    My email address is x_dream@live.co.uk

    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  30. We intend setting up a medium-scale palm oil milling factory to serve a community of about 1500 farmers with a total plantation of about 3000 acres. Can you please send a quotation to farmresourcecentre@gmail.com? Can it run on solar energy?

    ReplyDelete
  31. If you are interested in other Oil Press Machines, that can press seeds. then visit bt-oil-press.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Palm oil processing machines covers palm fruit oil pressing, palm oil refining machine and plam oil fractionation. Oilmachineworld has worked in palm oil pressing machine design, manufacture and installation from 1988.

    ReplyDelete
  33. My company is planing to start a palm oil processing plant in a remote location in Nigeria. I'd like to know the machines that can be used, there capacity, the electricity requirements, the generator that can power the plant and there prices. I'd like the machines to be connected through a conveyor, so that the products can be conveyed from one machine to the other. Please reply to sacsnigeria@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  34. We can supply palm oil production machine to customers with high quality and competitive price. http://www.oil-processing.com/. Wintone Machinery has more than 20 years manufacturing oil mill machinery experiences in China.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please send me samples and there cost to adolphy2reign@gmail.com and I will get back to you

      Delete
  35. most affordable biology environmental such as plant press providers in india.read more

    ReplyDelete

 
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